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  Glossary of technical terms
The following terms in this website have the following meanings unless the context otherwise requires or unless otherwise provided.

  A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
"2D/3D spatial datasets" Two dimensional and three dimensional (down-drill hole) data all of which have geographic coordinates
“air-core” A method of obtaining rock-core by a reverse circulation drilling technique whereby sample material is carried to the surface from an open face drill bit through the drill tube
“anisotropy” Literally not isotropic, a substance having different physical properties when measured in different directions
"anastomosing" Branching and joining irregularly to produce a net like pattern
"aeromagnetic data" A survey made from the air that records variation in the earths magnetic field
"alluvial" Pertaining to detrital processes with transport by a river and deposition at points along the river
"alluvium" Material that is alluvial, commonly composed of sands and gravels.
"alteration zones" Chemical changes in the composition of a rock or mineral due to passage of a fluid through the rock, commonly associated with mineralization and/or weathering
"anomaly" A value higher or lower than expected, which outlines a zone of potential exploration interest but not necessarily of commercial significance
"Archaean (Yilgarn Craton)" The oldest rocks of the Precambrian era, earlier than 2,500 Ma and prior to most life-forms; the Yilgarn Craton is an extensive terrain comprising south Western Australia and of Archaean rocks
"assay" The analysis of samples of minerals, rocks and mine product to determine and quantify their constituent parts
"Au" Gold
"autocorrelation" A geometrical method for the analysis of pairs of spatial data based on the relationship of two directional arrow between each pair
"banded iron formation" or "BIF" A finely balanced siliceous iron - bearing rock, mostly of Precambrian age
basalt", "high-Mg basalt", "metabasalt" basalt: fine-grained basic igneous rock comprising the minerals plagioclase, pyroxene with or without olivine, magnetite, quartz and hornblende
High-Mg basalt: A basalt with a high magnesium composition, typically comprising plagioclase, pyroxene and olivine
metabasalt: a basalt that shows evidence of having undergone metamorphism
"basement gneisses" Banded rocks that formed during high-grade regional metamorphism which are covered un-conformably by un-metamorphosed sediments
"batholith" A large intrusive mass of igneous rock
"bedrock" A mining term for the un-weathered rock below the oxidised near surface material
"below pit" Literally anything beneath an open pit
"bimodal" Pertaining to volcanism, two chemically distinct and separate styles of volcanic rock
"breccia" Coarse grained rock composed of broken, angular fragments of rock
"brown-fields" In the context of mineral exploration, brown-fields are those adjacent to and near an existing or historic mine
"calcite-chlorite" A rock with the minerals calcite and chlorite commonly but not always as a result of alteration
"carbonate" Rocks rich in calcium and/or magnesium - the limestone minerals
"carbonated ultra-mafic" An ultramafic rock that has undergone alteration with the addition of carbonate
"chert" A cryptocrystalline form of quartz occurring in bands in sedimentary rock
"clays" Near-surface rocks comprising clay or layer-lattice minerals, usually fine platy minerals
"competent blocks/rocks" A relative term for a rock layer which during deformation resists flow, shape change and cleavage development
"cross-cut" The relationship of one structure to another
"cross-fault" A fault that cuts across a predefined feature such as bedding
"decline" Sub-vertical development from surface from which the orebody is accessed
"deposit" Coherent geological body such as a mineralised body
"dilational sites" An opening in a rock usually induced during rock deformation and into which (mineralising) fluids may flow
"dilution" Rock containing little or no valuable material but which is mixed with ore during the mining process due to the complex nature of the orebody contacts and/or the non-selectivity of the mining method used
"dip" The angle at which layered rocks, foliation, a fault, or other planar structures, are inclined from the horizontal
"dissemination" Fine particles of a mineral or other rock feature dispersed throughout the enclosing rock
"dolerite" A medium grained intrusive igneous rock of basalt composition
"drill core" Rock samples recovered by diamond drilling
"drill hole" Hole drilled in the ground
"drill spacing" The distance between drill holes
"aircore drilling",
"diamond drilling",
"infill drilling",
"RAB drilling",
"reconnaissance drilling",
"scout drilling"
drilling: exploration drilling - creation of test holes in the ground produced by mechanical means

aircore drilling: see "air-core" above

diamond drilling: colloquial term for diamond core drilling - see "drill core" above
infill drilling: see "infill drilling" below
RAB drilling: a drilling method used in relatively soft rocks by means of a rotary bit and compressed air which carries the sample to the surface on the outside of the drill tube
RC drilling: a drilling technique employing a rotating or hammering action on a drill bit which returns a sample to the surface inside the rod string by compressed air
Reconnaissance drilling: initial drill testing of ground
Scout drilling: like reconnaissance drilling
"EM" Electromagnetic
"extensions" Continuous or discontinuous additions to known mineralisation
"fault" Fracture in a rock along which there has been an observable amount of displacement
"feldspar" A group of rock forming silicate minerals making up approximately 60 per cent of the earth's crust
"field mapping" Geology field mapping, a process of documenting the surface geology and for interpretation of rocks at depth by the systematic and ordered recording of rock information on a spatial grid
"felsic" Rocks that contain an abundance of quartz and feldspar pertaining to light coloured silicate materials that are poor in iron and magnesium
"flexure" A bend or curve (in rock strata)
"fold" A substantial bend in rock strata
"fractal technology" Analytical tools developed to enable the study of fractals where "a fractal is a shape which is made of parts similar to the whole in some way" (Mandelbrot, 1987). A useful alternative description of fractals is the mathematics of "non-differentiable" phenomena
"fracture" Break in rocks due to intense folding or faulting
"g" Grammes
"g/t" Grammes of precious metal per tonne of dry ore
"gabbro" A plutonic rock consisting mostly of plagioclase and clionopyroxene
"geochemical" A method of searching for concealed bodies by means of chemical sampling techniques
"geology" The study of the earth as a whole, its origin, structure, composition and history; commonly used to refer to rock science
"geometrical" Measurements of length and angle
"geomorphology" The description and interpretation of landforms
"geophysics" The study of the variations in the values of physical parameters of the earth
"geoscience" The science of geology, commonly used in a broader context than geology to include the chemistry and physics of the earth
"geostatistics" The spatial statistics of the numeric results of exploration sampling
"grade" Relative quantity or the percentage of ore mineral content in an ore body.
"granite" A medium to coarse-grained igneous rock composed principally of quartz and feldspar
"granitic" Pertaining to granite
"granitoid" Rocks of a generally granite composition but including some that may not be strictly called granite
"granophyre" A microgranite which displays a graphic texture
"graphite" A soft black form of native carbon
"greenschist facies" A grade of metamorphism, less deep than amphibolite facies
"green-fields" In the context of mineral exploration, greenfields-fields are those remote to a mine and from which there are only limited exploration data available
"greenstone" The volcanic and sedimentary rock component of the Archaean terrains
"halo" A sub-circular zone surrounding an anomaly
"igneous" A rock formed by the solidification of mineral-rich molten liquid, which is intruded into bedrock or erupted from a volcano
"infill drilling" Drill testing for mineralization between existing drill lines
"intercalated" Mix between
"intercept" A zone of mineralization located by drilling with defined distance and grade
"intrusions" or "intrusives" A body of igneous rock that has forced or invaded its way into pre-existing rock
"jasperlitic" Pertaining to japser, a red chert variety of chalcedony, usually iron-bearing.
"km" Kilometres
"km2" Square kilometres
"laterite" Near-surface residual deposit formed under tropical conditions comprising hydrated iron oxides
"lenses" Eye-shaped zones
"linear trends" Near-straight lines
"lode" An ore deposit occurring in place within definite boundaries separating it from adjoining rocks
"m" Metres
"Ma" Million years
"magnetic drop outs" On magnetic images these are zones where the strata appear to be much less magnetic than expected
"mapping" The spatially precise documentation of information
"mafic" Pertaining to dark coloured silicate minerals that are rich in iron and magnesium and the igneous rocks in which these minerals are abundant
"metamorphism" A pronounced change in the constitution of rock effected by pressure and heat that results in a more compact and more highly crystalline condition
"metamorphosed black shales" Metamorphism of a carbon-bearing sedimentary unit, usually to a graphite schist
"metasediments" Term applied to sedimentary rocks, which have been partially altered in composition, texture, or internal structure by processes involving pressure, heat and/or the introduction of new chemical substances
"mica-quartz" A rock or alteration with the minerals mica and quartz
"mineralization" Process of formation and concentration of elements and their compounds within a mass or body of rock
"mineral reserve" That portion of a mineral resource on which technical and economic studies have been carried out to demonstrate that it can justify extraction at the time of the determination and under specified economic conditions
"mineral resource" a tonnage or volume of rock or mineralization or other material of intrinsic economic interest the grades , limits and other appropriate characteristics of which are known with a specified degree of knowledge. Mineral resources are sub-divided in order of increasing confidence into Inferred, Indicated and Measured categories. See "resource" below
"Mt" Million tonnes
"Mtpa" Million tonnes per annum
"open pit" Mine working or excavation open to the surface
"ore" A mixture of rock minerals that may be mined and from which at least one of the minerals can be processed at a profit
"orebody" A mass of ore
"ore shoot" A large and usually rich aggregation of mineral in a vein
"ounce" or "oz" Troy ounce; unit of weight equal to 31.102g
"outcrop" A rock exposure on the surface
"overburden" Uneconomic material which overlies a bed of useful material
"oxide" Mineral produced by natural weathering processes at or near the Earth's surface
"palaeochannel" An ancient (geological) river course
"plutons" A high-level cylindrical mass of granitic rock emplaced at low temperature in a near solid state
"podiform shoots" Elongate lens-like unit
"polyphase folding" The deformation of rocks in multiple events into complex folds and re-folds
"porphyry" An igneous rock in which relatively large conspicuous crystals (called phenocrysts) are set in a fine-grained ground mass
"post-tectonic" After deformation, and usually metamorphism and igneous activity
"Precambrian" The first geological era between the formation of the earth and 590 Ma ago
"pressure shadow" A zone of low mean stress in the lee of a rigid or competent body
"project areas" Regions and sub-regions selected for exploration
"prospects" A target (or historic target) upon which exploration programmes are planned (or have been planned)
"quartz" Homogeneous rock composed of silicon dioxide (Si02 silica)
"reef" A mineralised zone, commonly a quartz vein hosting the ore mineral
"refractory" Minerals that are stubborn or difficult to process
"regolith" The layer of loose, incoherent or coherent material that forms the surface of the land above the bedrock
"remnant resource" That part of a resource defined before mining, that is left behind after mining has ceased
"rheologically competent rocks" Rheology is the science of the strength of materials (including rock). "Competent" is defined above.
"resource" Measured: a mineral resource intersected and tested by drill holes, underground openings or other sampling procedures at location which are spaced closely enough to confirm continuity and where geoscientific data are reliably known. A measured mineral resource estimate will be based on a substantial amount of reliable data, interpretation and evaluation which allows a clear determination to be made of shapes, sizes, densities and grades

Indicated: a mineral resource sampled by drill holes, underground openings or other sampling procedures at locations too widely spaced to confirm continuity but close enough to give a reasonable indication of continuity and where geoscientific data are known with a reasonable degree of reliability. An Indicated resource estimate will be based on more data and therefore will be more reliable than an Inferred resource estimate

Inferred: a mineral resource inferred from geoscientific evidence, underground openings or other sampling procedures where the lack of data is such that continuity cannot be predicted with confidence and where geoscientific data may not be known with a reasonable level of reliability
"resource extensions" Additional zones of mineralization located adjacent to the known resource
"resource upgrades" Additional resources located adjacent to known resources
"saprolite" The zone of oxidised rock above bedrock and beneath the regolith
"schist" A strongly foliated, coarsely crystalline metamorphic rock
"schistosity" A cleavage within the rock defined by medium to high-grade metamorphicgrowth minerals
"sedimentary" Composed of sediments
"sediments" Rocks formed from material derived from pre-existing rock rocks by processes of denudation together with organic and chemical diagenesis
"shear (zone/system)" A tabular area of rock that has been transformed and brecciated by many parallel fractures resulting from shear strain; often becomes a channel for underground solutions and the seat of ore depositation
"shearing" The change of shape of the rock strata during deformation
"sheared contact" Deformation with intense schistosity or fracturing along the zone of juxtaposition of two rock units
"shoot control" The deformation and other geology controls on the shape and position of a long zone of high-grade ore
"spatial analysis" The scientific analysis of data with geographic coordinates
"stockwork" A network of veins or veinlets, usually containing quartz
"strata" Successive layers of sedimentary rock
"stratigraphy" The succession and age relation of layered rocks
"strike" Horizontal dimension of an orebody or zone of mineralization
"strike length" The longest horizontal dimension of an orebody or zone of mineralisation
"structural corridors" Zones of characteristic deformation geology
"Structural repetitions" Multiply repeated deformation elements
"sub-cropping" Loose float material arising from poor quality outcrop common in Western Australia
"sub-vertical" Near - upright
"sulphide" Mineral containing sulphur in its non-oxidised form
"supergene" A word suggesting an origin "from above", almost exclusively for processes involving water percolating down from the surface
"syncline" or "synclinal fold" A fold in which the younger strata are on the outer arc
"synform" A fold whose limbs close downward in strata for which the stratigraphic sequence is unknown
"tenements granted" Mineral exploration titles that have been issued by the WA State Government and on which exploration may be conducted
"tenements (in application)" Mineral exploration titles that have been applied for and which may be granted by the WA State Government on completion of a number of statutory and non-statutory requirements including negotiations with the native title claimants
"t" Tonne (one thousand kilogrammes)
"trends" Directions
"trending" Linear feature with a particular common direction
"ultramafic" An igneous rock that consists almost entirely of ferromagnesian minerals and possesses no free quartz with less than 45 per cent silica
"veins" or "veinlets" or "veining" Tabular or sheet like body of minerals which has formed in a joint or a fissure, or a system of joints and fissures, in rocks
"volcanic" Extrusive and associated intrusive igneous rocks
"volcanoclastic" Volcanic rock re-worked by sedimentary processes
"volcano-sedimentary sequences" A stratigraphic pile of volcanoclastic rock
"workings" Old mine pits, shafts and/or adits
"xenoliths" Inclusions of pre-existing rock in an igneous rock
"zones" An area of particular geology that is longer than it is wide
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